The walls of Japan’s Kawloon city walled by the Chinese Nationalist army are home to some of the most fascinating archaeological sites in Asia.
It was built as a fortified settlement during the Qing Dynasty (1368-1644) by Emperor Qianlong to stop invading Mongols.
However, after the Chinese Civil War in 1841, Kawloons inhabitants moved on, taking their own paths and leaving behind a few surviving remnants of the walls.
The walls were later demolished in the 1950s to make way for a new city that was constructed on a plot of land around the old site.
Today, the walls are an active archaeological site and visitors can wander the streets and take in the spectacular architecture.
The best walls in Asia is a new book by archaeologists from the University of Western Australia (UWA) that reveals some of these buildings, including the city wall in Kawlons centre.
The book, ‘Best Walled Cities in Asia’ features images from a range of different sources, including photos, historical documents, archaeological remains, and photographs of ancient Chinese walls.
A survey of the historical evidence and photographs reveals how the walls of Kawlon were built, including a reconstruction of a wall on which a Chinese soldier stood during the Battle of Shorong (1786).
The wall was later removed and the original site is now the Kawlona Cultural Centre, which showcases a wide range of contemporary art.
The Kawloni wall is also the largest in China.
The site contains an array of artefacts, including pottery and metal objects dating back to the Bronze Age, as well as stone walls and other building materials.
It has been a cultural treasure for the Kawli community for more than 500 years.
In the book, archaeologist Dr David A. Wilson describes the KawLoni walls as a “monument to Chinese history, the most important historical site in China”.
He says the city walls are a testament to the strength of the Chinese Empire, the Qing and later the Jin Dynasty.
“They show the extent of China’s military prowess and the power of the Qing dynasty, and they represent the last bastion of the Ming dynasty,” Dr Wilson said.
“We have a strong and strong sense of history in China, and the walls serve to remind us of our history.”
The KawLoon wall was built by a Chinese military regiment in the late Qing Dynasty, when the country was under the control of the Emperor Qin.
During the war, the troops took refuge in the city and built a number of walled walls and fortifications.
It is estimated that up to a million Chinese died during the conflict.
The walled areas of the city became the focal point of a Chinese cultural heritage and an important centre for Chinese soldiers.
It became a site of religious observance, and was designated a World Heritage site by UNESCO in 1989.
The city walls and the surrounding landscape were protected for almost 100 years before being demolished in 1998.
The remnants of Kawlanian culture are scattered around the city today.
Dr Wilson says that the Kawlanians culture has endured for hundreds of years, with the town’s inhabitants remaining close to the wall.
“When they moved away, the walled sites are now occupied by the people of Kawlamoon,” he said.
The history of the Kawlamon walls is told through archaeological sites, which include a bronze gate, a wooden plaque and two stone sculptures, one of which depicts a female warrior.
The sculpture of a warrior, known as the Wudao, is one of the best-known images of Kawlnian culture.
The other sculpture is the famous Kawlan’s stone.
“The bronze gate and the sculpture of the warrior are very important and show the relationship between the wall and the city, and also show the power and importance of the wall,” Dr Ryan said.
Ancient Chinese texts reveal the city was destroyed by the Jin, but that the city survived by rebuilding itself and by attracting visitors from all over the country.
“Kawlanians have been known to use the city to perform their ceremonies, so it is important to know the history of their walled town,” Dr Scott said.
Kawloni Wall is a book by archaeologist David A Wilson.
It contains images from archaeological sites and photographs.
Dr David Wilson is an Australian of Chinese descent.
He is a Professor of Archaeology at the University at Albany, New York, and is the co-author of ‘The World Heritage Site of KawLon’, published by the University Press of Australia.